There’s a new study out about the risk of American Tackle Football (heretofore called simply football) and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) or some spelling idk. Basically humans are not mountain goats, though scientists continue to work tirelessly.
All sport carries risk of injury. What makes CTE insidious is that it’s cumulative and invisible for years. You can break a bone and it resets and you can recover 100%. You can recover from most skeletomuscular injuries to regain your pre-injury performance. The problem both with CTE and football, as opposed to other violent sports like hockey, is that the purpose of the sport is to put your head in danger to make the violent play. There are bad collisions in sports like hockey, lacrosse, soccer, but they are less frequent, and typically in a play for the ball or puck. It has violent potential, but is not combative.
We are in the middle of a planet finding bonanza. In just the past five years, we’ve discovered more planets outside our solar system than in the rest of history combined! And as for finding more planets, the sky is literally the limit! What is an exoplanet and how do we find them?
An exoplanet is simply any planet discovered outside our solar system. Even finding planets within our own solar system is no simple task. Only Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn have been seen with the naked eye and have been known since ancient times. In fact, we started discovering Jupiter’s moons before we finished discovering every planet in our own solar system. Jupiter’s first four moons (Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto) were all discovered in 1610, and it wasn’t until 1781 until Uranus was discovered. Pluto was discovered in 1930, then unceremoniously demoted to dwarf planet in 2006. By then we had well begun identifying planets beyond our solar system.
So how do we find exoplanets? The most simple method to detect a planet direct imaging: point a very powerful telescope toward a star and view the planet orbiting the star. Even with the most powerful telescopes we have we can only directly image huge planets (larger than Jupiter) that are close enough to a star bright enough to reflect light for a telescope to directly image.
That’s great, but we’re more interested in smaller, Earth-like planets that could exhibit features like our planet and even possibly harbor life. Finding definitive evidence that a planet outside our system harbors life is the holy grail of planet hunting! Currently we are finding plenty of planets slightly larger than ours that we’ve called Super Earths, that we can’t see directly but can infer their existence from other means.
If we can’t see a Super Earth, how can we detect it? The method coming into fashion for detecting planets big and small is the Transit method. Direct imaging is detecting the light reflected off a planet, transit method is detecting the absence of light from the star when a planet crosses in front of it. If the alignment is right, a planet orbiting in front of a star will make that star’s brightness temporarily decrease in a predictable fashion. If the star’s brightness is graphed over time, the size and shape of the dip of brightness will give us information about the planet’s size and orbit. A planet close enough to its star will orbit quickly, and we can track the trends of the star’s brightness to get information about its orbit shape, which in turn can tell us if liquid water, and thus life, are possible on the planet!
Another indirect method that was popular before the Transit method took dominance is the wobble method or if you prefer jargon, the radial velocity method. This method is somewhat limited to larger planets and smaller stars. Basically- planets don’t orbit their stars so much as both the planet and star orbit the system’s center of mass, so a large planet actually tugs a star around in a wobbly path. The size and frequency of the star’s wobble can tell information about the tugging planet. This method works best if the star is smaller relative to the planet (so it gets tugged more) and the two bodies are close (so they wobble quickly enough to be detected and modeled).
There are some other novel methods, but Transit is king today, and the method used to detect seven planets in one system, called TRAPPIST-1. That stands for Transiting Planets and Planetesimals Small Telescope, a “backronym” that pays homage to the discovering nation’s chief cultural export, namely Belgium, who makes Trappist style beer. TRAPPIST-1 has seven planets, all roughly Earth-sized or smaller, and three of these planets are within their parent star’s habitable zone which simply means it’s the right temperature, given the star’s heat, to hold liquid water. The parent star is a red dwarf which is a smaller and cooler star than our own, so the habitable zone is much closer to the star. TRAPPIST-1’s parent star is only 8% the mass and 11% the diameter of our Sun.
TRAPPIST-1 is “only” 39.5 light years away, which suggests that solar systems like ours are fairly common, that planets are everywhere, and improves the chances that life exists elsewhere in our galaxy and universe. More and more powerful telescopes continue to come online, the techniques get more refined, and there are even some methods to detect the composition of exoplanet’s atmospheres coming around. It is a very exciting time for planet hunters, perhaps you’ll find one, or a whole system of them!
I live in the capital of sprawl, Houston. I buck the trend by living in town and commuting backward to NASA in Clear Lake- take THAT commuter society! Nevermind my commute is 20 miles each way (but it’s backward so I go pretty fast!..). I scoff at the suburban dweller, nay, hermits, who retreat daily to their free standing single family homes to lock the door and pluck some brain cells to place into a jar until the day repeats anew.
I am “woke” to the depleting nature of suburban bedroom communities. I don’t need a car to get to the grocery store- provided I can get what I need from the michoacana up the block. Great news- tacos, again! It’s not a food desert! (If you’re reading Scott McClelland I will perform acts for an HEB east of downtown) I don’t retreat to my self-imposed prison because my prison is smushed up against other ones in an arrangement called townhomes. I get the best of both worlds: high price and no privacy!
Even better- my neighborhood is a rapidly transitioning area from blue collar warehouses/factories/shotgun homes to white collar purchased townhomes to probably eventually no-collar rented townhomes. Instead of windy streets that require a car (snort!) to get around, we have a grid where drivers are free to accelerate to 50+, and a railroad goes literally right down my street. It shakes the house in the morning. Not across the street. Down it, like oh hello I’m driving next to a giant train full of lumber; no arm is preventing me from embracing the void and veering under it. We live across the corner from a hummus factory- how many white bread subby kids can say that? In Spanish? They probably have a good Spanish teacher at their school…
I honestly love my neighborhood and flail against the Undeniable Likelihood that we’ll end up in the suburbs “for the schools”. I tell myself “Chaz won’t start school for six years and by then brick and mortar schools will be Disrupted™ with School Prime by Amazon” and we can continue to live like quasi-hip artists-cum-yuppy near downtown. I tell myself we’re here to get in on the gold rush of Houston’s new hip EaDo neighborhood, but promise to sneer at the term EaDo and prefer “second ward” or if I’ve had a Corona, segundo barrio. I hate what I’ve become.
I did want a townhome in an urban environment, and kind of had a loose list of priorities in living:
- Prefer proximity to amenities over land or yard potential
- Really no yard is tops- I hate lawnwork
- Prefer mixed neighborhood to bedroom community
- Walkability like NYC or Amsterdam!
- Prefer upcoming neighborhood to mature neighborhood
- Cheaper, speculative
I’d say for the most part I hit the nail on the head with our house, but the nail is in fact several nails of mixed quality and I pay well over $1000 a month for a gentle tap upon one of them.
I told a liquor store owner I bought a house nearby and she said “Puedes retirarse en dos años” which was not the case. I bought my house when oil began its free fall. Another fun thing you pick up against your will when you live in Houston is learning a laymans introduction to the oil business. Like when Johnny Depp went to prison for weed in Blow and learned cocaine. You are forced to listen to that or sports if you must talk to other men in Houston. Houston sports are bad enough that oil can dominate a conversation by default. Downstream’s doing great I’ve heard. That’s another column.
I realized now I’m not talking about the title of my rant. I guess there is a lesson inside reading and writing this article tangent to the actual content is that you can’t have it all, and your plans become minute tactical moves instead of grand designs you dreamed of. Instead of a self-reliant bungalow in a mixed urban environment where I can walk/bike/train to a park, grocery, bar, whatever, basically I Want To Live In Amsterdam But Maybe A Bit More Room is replaced with mundane decisions of what to do about the dang garage door sumbitch weather strip fell off and it’s $300 to replace a rubber tube whose only job is to keep my garage clean? Which it wasn’t in the first place and never will be?
Fuck every time I start an article it spirals into an existential I’m-jaded-with-western-capitalist-society-and-want-to-move-to-the-trees-in-a-commune-that-miraculously-rejects-pathological-quasi-religious-nuttery. Maybe I should write an article about my shit eating idea of a utopian oh god dammit.
Rockets are the sticks that go boom on one end and fly real fast the other. They range from the little bottle rocket on the 4th of July to the football-field-tall Saturn V which took astronauts to the Moon.
You’ll notice that the Saturn V rocket has a few segments. We call these segments stages. Why do rockets have stages? Why are there rocket engines inside the rocket?
The short answer is: to save mass to go faster. Why do we have to save mass? Think of it this way, you can roll a bowling ball much faster than a boulder.
Rockets need to go very fast in order to reach orbit. They need to go even faster if they are to escape orbit and go to other places. The notion of orbiting itself can be a bit tricky: It’s moving so fast that you are falling down at the same rate as the surface of the earth is curving away from you, so you end up falling around the Earth.
Have you ever dropped a coin in one of those big funnels and watched it spiral down into the hole? Orbiting is essentially the same thing: the coin falls around the hole and gently slows down and spirals into the hole. In space there is no friction to slow the spacecraft down, so it would be like the coin just rolling around in a circle forever.
So the difference between going to space and going into orbit is speed. Space is just up- orbit is going and staying up. Going back to staging- a rocket is basically made of three things: the tanks, the engines, and the fuel. The fuel is by far the heaviest thing on board, but requires tanks to hold it. When a tank empties, you continue to carry the empty tank.
Staging allows you to shed the mass of emptying tanks, so you can push the remaining pieces of the rocket even faster. Second to that (and the focus of a future article), the rocket engines for different stages are designed to best work either at the ground, going really fast, or going really fast in space. By dropping early engines you can start up new engines that are best suited for that phase of the mission.
I want to write a little bit about listening to others. Basically: do it. Even though you are absolutely designed not to, you have to override your human programming and do it anyway.
Humans are tribal by nature, and without higher direction fall into groups of in and out.
This is literally written into our nature, our brains, our DNA. Humans are basically super-social walking plains chimpanzees. In The Third Chimpanzee, Jared Diamond details the incredible proximity we have to chimpanzees not only genetically but behaviorally and socially. The differences between us are a few degrees here and there. Humans, and especially civilization, have taken some behavioral aspects of chimpanzees and turned them to 11.
Chimps and humans (absent civilization) roll around in tribes which are loose collections of social and familial relations. People come and go, mate into other groups, start new groups, but there are clear social barriers between groups. For chimps, the size of these groups can go up to a couple dozen. For humans, multiple hundreds. One feature in humans that was turned to 11 is the ability to store, organize, and understand both identities and all the relationships between up to ~150 people. From this is the adage that you can only really have 150 true friends. Beyond that and your resolution of the interpersonal relationships break down- they become acquaintances. Social media farms out the mental power needed to maintain this social web, so in effect scrolling your facebook feed literally feeds a primal urge to digest social networks. But I digress.
Furthermore, the relationships between human tribes vs chimp tribes is also turned to 11. Chimpanzees are naturally wary and possibly violent with outsiders. Humans are as well, but with the gift of story telling and long multi-generational lifetimes, relationships between tribes go from banal to epic. Instead of just a random stranger, that person from the other tribe is a demon whose grandfather cast a spell on the whole valley; avoid if possible, kill if you must.
Maybe you see where I’m going. Using the qualifier “absent civilization”, humans are basically super social, super paranoid walky chimps. Fortunately (though that is debatable) we have civilization, which has selectively muted the innate tribal behavior of people, left to seethe under the surface. Instead of absolute discrete tribes, tribal behavior retreats into relative social areas of life. It is always just under the surface though, and many times starkly above it.
Anytime you see someone completely shut out dissent, treat insiders better than family, outsiders like blood enemies, you are seeing classic human behavior. This shouldn’t surprise you. You are that way too. Yes you are. YES YOU ARE. I don’t care what you say!
This behavior is intractable because it’s so natural to exhibit and feels like a warm blanket of certainty to those who wear it. Coming up and actually listening to and considering the merit with the benefit of the doubt is like sticking your head out of the igloo.
Rising above tribal behavior itself is a behavior, which like all behavior is borne out of habit- and habits can be formed with disciplined intervention. It is possible through a concentrated effort on mindfulness to push tribal nature away perhaps six inches. I’m telling myself this right now as I am getting mentions on twitter for spouting off on some Trump fan’s tweet. Namaste. Be the change Clark. Don’t reply.
The ability to achieve a modicum of mindfulness to actually listen to alternative interpretations of politics is paramount today. We must learn first how to listen without mentally grinding our axes. We must also learn how to speak with compassion, but man I’m not getting into that at this point.
I’m trying to set this up for the next edition sometime which will be about looking for merit in your detractors argument vs looking for holes to poke. We can’t move forward by dismissing the concerns of others- we have to bring them with us. So next time I’ll talk about how I’m trying to do just that. Perceived facts may as well be real when votes are. We have to understand the perception and enlighten it.